Skiing is a sport that makes use of a pair of skis for traveling on snow. Snowboarding is a sport where the participant descends a snowy slope with a single snowboard attached to his feet. Equipment (Number of boards) 2 - A pair of skis appended to boots by way of binding.

@Jackie San

Skiing and snowboarding are ways of moving over snow with boards attached to the feet; practiced mostly as recreation or sport, but often as conveyance.

Skiing is a kind of sport that uses a pair of skis to travel over snow. The skis are bound to boots, and progress is one foot at a time. On the other hand, snowboarding involves traveling on snow on a single snowboard attached to boots. Snowboarding is inspired by surfing, skiing and skateboarding.

History & Evolution

Skiing was invented by prehistoric people (Samis, Nordic) mainly as means of transportation and for hunting. Documented evidence of origin of skiing is found in Norway and Sweden. The origin of skiing as recreation and sport is attributed to Sondre Norheim (Father of Modern Skiing). He is responsible for the creation of skiing templates and all modern versions of skiing have originated from this. Telemark skiing or telemarking was common in 19th century and has since then been revived. New technique called the snow plow or stem technique has made snow slopes friendlier to beginners. The Arlberg technique is largely responsible for making skiing a very popular recreational activity.

The snowboard is believed to have been developed in 1970s in Utah. The first snowboard was called the Snurfer and was designed by Sherman Poppen for his daughter in 1965. The Snurfer began to be manufactured as a toy from the following year. The 1970s and 1980s saw snowboarding evolving into a popular recreational sport. Dimitri Milovich developed snowboard designs and started his own company called WinterStick. Jake Burton Carpenter, Tom Sims, Chuck Barfoot and Mike Olson are largely responsible for the snowboards and mechanisms that is currently in used today.

Types & Styles

Skiing:man leaning forward, facing ahead
Skiing:man leaning forward, facing ahead

Skiing primarily consists is of two types:

Telemark Alpine or Downhill skiing

Apart from these there are many other types of skiing:

Freestyle skiing:

  • Alpine freestyle – using aerial acrobatics and balance by rails (jibbing).
  • Freestyle / Newschool – trick like twin tip, flips, spins etc are associated with this type of skiing.
  • Freesking / Freeride – is doe on steeper slopes, cliffs etc. There is requirement for fatter skis.

Nordic skiing:

  • Nordic skiing – also known as Cross Country skiing. Can be freestyle or classic. All techniques are allowed except skating techniques.
  • Nordic jumping – also known as ski flying and ski jumping. Performed with Nordic style skis.

Military skiing - used as means of military transport apart from being enjoyed as recreation and sport. Army troops are trained for ski warfare which uses military skiing techniques. Biathlon, the sport owes its origin to military skiing patrols.

Kite skiing - skiing while being carried or pulled by kite, hang glider or parasail.

Paraskiing - done after jumping off from a plane or starting at high altitude.

Adaptive skiing – done by individuals with disabilities.

Dry slope skiing – done on artificial snow, dirt or dry snow.


Snowboarding is done in many styles which are used for recreational as well as in professional snowboarding.

  • Jibbing and Rail riding – riders jump over rails and obstacles.
  • Free riding – this is the most common and is easily accessible. It is simple riding down any terrain.
  • Dry Slope – snowboarding over man made slopes for the purpose during summer or in places where there is no snow.
  • Freestyle – rider uses manmade obstacles and terrain features to perform tricks and jumps.
  • Free carve – is also known as alpine snowboarding. Riders ride over hard packed snow and the focus is on carving turns.

Techniques Used

Skiing, makes use of poles to assist skiers as they move downhill or uphill and support them when they are in an upright position. It is necessary for snowboard riders to frequently seat themselves and exert more energy to remain on edge when they are at a stop.

Both a snowboarder and a skier hold the same kind of expertise but with respect to sheer velocity, skiing gains an upper hand over snowboarding. Skiers are faster than snowboarders.

Effect on the body

Skiing relatively affects the knees more when compared to snowboarding. Injuries and accidents related to the knee and broken bones occur largely in skiing. Snowboarding is more harmful to the wrists.


Skiing competitions are organized by International Ski Federation and this body is responsible for rules and regulations, scheduling of competitions etc. each county has its own national association which manages the competitions. The US Ski and Snowboard Association handle competitive skiing in America.

The Air & Style, Burton Global Open Series, Shakedown, X-Trail Jam, X-Games are large snowboarding contests. The Ticket to Ride is the largest grand finale of all independent free style events under the Tour Flag. It is officially recognized as TTR.


Skiing and snowboarding are thrilling activities and great workouts. Both sports are excellent cardiovascular exercises that strengthen the heart. They are also weight-bearing exercises. So hey strengthen your bones as they tone your muscles.

Cardiovascular or aerobic exercises also work to reduce your risk for ongoing (chronic) diseases. They lower your blood pressure. And they help you maintain a healthy body weight. Through regular aerobic exercise like skiing and snowboarding, you lower your risk of developing conditions like diabetes and heart disease, having a stroke, and perhaps even getting cancer.

It's important to prepare your body for the challenges of these demanding winter sports with some pre-skiing and pre-snowboarding exercises. These exercises will strengthen you and get you fit enough to handle the slopes. You also need the correct equipment and lessons to teach you needed skills. If you have any chronic medical illnesses, are a smoker, or have not exercised in a while or at all, talk to your healthcare provider before skiing or snowboarding.  

Get ready

Start by training your body for these sports a few months before your first lesson. Think about working out with a personal trainer. You and your trainer can create a fitness plan and exercises best suited to help you get into shape before skiing or snowboarding.

Next, sign up for private or group lessons from a qualified skiing or snowboarding instructor. You'll learn skills and safety guidelines like how to protect yourself. And you'll even learn how to fall to keep from getting hurt.

Ski and snowboard tips

Once you're fit and know the basics—and even after you're an expert—you still need to take certain safety steps to stay safe on your skis or snowboard. Follow these guidelines to get the most out of your winter workout and have more fun on the slopes:

  • Use the right equipmentWhether buying or renting, choose skiing or snowboarding equipment that's in good shape, of good quality, and fits you correctly. Protect yourself with a helmet made for skiing; goggles; shin, wrist, and arm guards; and gloves that fit correctly. Ski boots and bindings should be checked and adjusted by a ski professional. You should always double check your bindings before you head down the slope.

  • Pay attention. Keep a close eye on the trail, stay on course and on courses designed for your skill level. Be on the lookout for dangerous ice and stay away from it whenever possible. Always know the snow conditions before you ski or snowboard. If you are unsure of the conditions, check with the local Ski Patrol. Know and follow the rules of the ski resort.

  • Pace yourselfStart out the day with a few slow, easy runs to warm up. Remember not to push yourself too hard or try a course that's beyond your skill level. Always snowboard or ski with a buddy. When you feel tired or if your muscles feel weak, take a break.

  • Stay hydrated. Drink plenty of fluids when you're on the slopes all day. But stay away from alcohol. In addition to eating a healthy breakfast and lunch, you might want to pack healthy snack bars in a parka pocket.

  • Know what to do in an emergencyAccidents happen. And things don't always go as planned. Know what to do if you or someone in your group has an injury, hypothermia (a drop in body temperature that can be dangerous), or frostbite.  

Skiing and snowboarding are exercises that make winter truly fun. Just remember that both are serious sports that need preparation, safety measures, and skills. So as soon as the air turns crisp, make sure to start working on winter fitness and you'll be prepared when the first snowflakes fall. 







@Jackie San

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