KRI Nanggala Tragedy : Pushed To The Limit


Indonesian military leaders declared early this week (April) that the wreckage of KRI Nanggala (402), a missing Indonesian Navy submarine, had been found on the sea floor and all 53 crew and passengers aboard were confirmed dead. Parts of the submerged submarine were found off Bali, at a depth of 850 meters, well beyond the crush depth of the submarine, a 40-year-old German-designed Type 209/1300 boat.


No cause has been determined, but, as the investigation unfolds, the KRI Nanggala disaster will echo throughout Asia. A trend may be emerging: Aggravated geopolitical tensions, accelerated training imperatives and new technologies may tempt several regional navies to push their older undersea platforms to the absolute limit-and beyond. Without change, the region must expect more KRI Nanggala-like disasters.



The KRI Nanggala story began more than 40 years ago, when Indonesia, a strategic archipelago, discarded an aging Russina-supplied submarine fleet and procured two modern German-designed submarines. Perfect for controlling maritime choke points, the small Type 209/1300 boats, called the Cakra class, served as a disproportionate deterrence, making neighbors think twice before confronting the sprawling island nation at sea.

Few navies learned this lesson as well as Indonesia. Twenty years ago, during the 1999 East Timor crisis, Indonesia's Cakra class submarines were, by submarine standards, already ancient. But the threat posed by the two diminutive submarines forced the International Force East Timor (INTERFET) to supplement their defensive posture by deploying maritime patrol aircraft, expanding their amphibious fleet to 13 surface combatants and positioning other high-value anti-submarine assets.


For the majority of sub users, simple submarines remain enormously useful. The only problem is that few submarine exporters are interested in producing simple undersea craft. For many submarine proliferators, their general mission is to try and offset their own expenses by enticing buyers to obtain the highest-tech submarine possible. That's all well and good, but prospective sub buyers, intoxicated by the prestige of it all, often get far more sub than they can handle. Rather than procure a robust and simple set of "torpedoes in a can," aspiring small navies end up struggling to operate persnickety, high-tech marvels that have a price tag to match.









The market trends drive smaller navies to keep old submarines in service for far longer than most larger navies. While Japan, a top-tier submarine producer, retires submarines after 20 years of service, the four Type 209/ 1300s operated by Ecuador and Venezuela are still soldiering on well into their fourth decade. That's not necessarily a problem. Aged subs are fine if they are used sparingly, provided immanulate refits and kept within progressively restrictive operating parameters when needed.

Old submarines suffer when the operator is unable to maintain strict operational and maintenance protocols. Aged subs do not respond well to the pressure of enhanced maritime competition, and they are best suited to standard, routine deployments and a relatively quiet operational career. Put another way, to secure the busy Indonesian archipelago, the two Cakras have likely been asked to do far more over their service lives than Ecuador and Venezuela's tiny submarine fleets ever have.


It is no surprise that the two worst submarine accidents in the Pacific involved old submarines carrying more people than planned. In 2003, an accident aboard an aged Ming class submarine, China's Navy Submarine No. 361, killed all 70 aboard. Normally a Ming class boat supports a crew of 57. The KRI Nanggala - cramped in the best of circumstances - was supporting an enhanced crew, well over the standard Type 209/1300 contingent of about 35. In both accidents, observes suspect that the crew was bulked up by extra trainees, technicians or observes. That can have tragic consequences. When seconds count, the last thing any submariner needs are panicked joyriders gettin gin the way.

But extra passengers are a fact of life aboard older submarines. With the Pacific militarizing, underseas fleets are growing, and legacy submarines are being asked to absorb more and more training duties. Complicating things, many of the Pacific's aspiring submarine forces are developing their own undersea technologies, and older subs are being asked to keep the front-line submarines free for duty by testing an ever-expanding array of new technologies.

Training and testing can fill already-cramped older active-duty submarines with visitors that are, at best, unfamiliar with the submarine's contingency plans - and even then military leaders may also ask the operationally-constrained submarines to accommodate an unfamiliar maneuver or take on new gear-gear that is, like the trainees, often experiencing the harsh demands of undersea service for the first time.

It is a recipe for disaster. And then, if disaster strikes and a troubled submarine somehow survives an initial catastrophe, a bulked-up crew reduces the already slim margins for rescue. More bodies put more demands on life support equipment and critical consumables that submariners depend upon when all else fails.


Enacting a full "SUBSAFE" quality assurance program may be too much for small navies, but there are ways for other submarine operators to help mitigate the challenge posed by a growing fleet of over-tasked and aging submarines. The first step is to encourage users to be realistic and impose strict operational restrictions on older submarines when required. A hard used, 40 year-old submarine with no operational restrictions endangers everyone. And when past operational records are somewhat less than accurate, old subs are deathtraps.

Training and testing protocols merit improvement throughout the Pacific. It is far too easy for expanding navies, in the rush towards new technology, to overlook the mundane work of training and testing. When training opportunities hard to find and simulators and shore-based trainers and other training infrastructure absent, old operational subs become ersatz schoolhouses.

While training aboard and older sub is fine, marching a bolus of conscripted trainees into an already-cramped submarine is a recipe for disaster. In the Pacific, only Japan operates two full-fledged training submarines. More constrained operators might benefit from a different approach, purchasing submarines with extra space and sufficient "hotel" services to bring aboard and train four of five aspiring submariners at a time.

The submarine market can also try to put greater value in simplicity. Undersea warfare is a high-tech endeavor, but, as Indonesia demonstrated in 1999, basic submarines force even the highest-tech adversaries to enact pricey and complicated mitigation measures. Advanced submarine exporters and prestige-minded buyers may not like the idea, but if simpler submarines were on the market and priced accordingly, it might be easier for smaller navies to retire their oldest undersea craft.

The final option is to bolster submarine rescue resources throughout the region.

There is no good answer here. It is human nature to push advanced technological and military endeavors beyond all engineering limitations, and catastrophes always happen as safety margins are shaved ever close to the bone. In time, militaries learn avoidable accidents carry enormous national security costs. But these are hard lessons each Nation can only learn - and often must relearn -for themselves.






@ Jackie San





Why Mostly Country Was A Series Of Failures - COVID 19 ?


An Interim report is both a bleak recounting of deadly missteps and an early blueprint for repairs : " We have failed in our collective capacity."


Laying bare a yearlong cascade of failures, a World Health Organization panel recounts in a damning report how governments and public health organizations worldwide responded slowly and ineffectively to the coronavirus, despite years of warnings.


The interim report, an early blueprint for reform, describes the faulty assumptions, ineffective planning and sluggish responses - including missteps by the W.H.O., itself - that helped fuel a pandemic that has killed more than two (2) million people.


" We have failed in our collective capacity to come together in solidarity to create a protective web of human security," the Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response writers.


Many of the failings, such as the inability of governments to obtain protective equipment or do widespread contact tracing, have long been painfully clear over the course of the pandemic. But the report is stark in its assessment that, time and again, those who were responsible for protecting and leading failed to do either.


The panel, led by Helen Clark, a former prime minister of New Zealand, and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, a former president of Liberia, is still conducting its investigation. But in drafting an interim report, and laying out the scope of its inquiry, the panel makes clear that the world needs to rethink its approach to outbreaks.


The report describes one failure leading to another, from the "slow, cumbersome and indecisive" pandemic alert system, to the years of preparedness plans that failed to deliver, to the disjointed and even obstructive responses of national governments.


Public health officials stumbled, too. Investigators said they could not understand why a World Health Organization committee waited until January 30 to declare an international health emergency. 


And despite the decades of predictions that a viral pandemic was inevitable, and years of committees, task forces and high-level panels aimed at preparing the W.H.O. for that emergency, reforms were slow to come. "The failure to enact fundamental change despite the warnings issued has left the world dangerously exposed, as the COVID-19 pandemic proves," the report says.


But the W.H.O.'s stumbles did not excuse the repeated failing of world leaders. For even after health officials gave a clear warning signal, the report notes, " In far too many countries, this signal was ignored."


The report also faults public health leaders for responding slowly to early evidence that people without symptoms could spread the new coronavirus. Early reports out of China, and one in Germany, documented this phenomenon. But leading health agencies, including the World Health Organization, provided contradictory and sometimes misleading advice, a New York Times investigating previously found.


W.H.O.'s director general, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, appointed the panel to review the world's COVID-19 response. Although the panel said the report was based on hundreds of documents, expert consultations and more than 100 interviews with frontline responders, it is not clear if the investigators have spoken to key health officials or reviewed internal documents.


Many of the initial findings have been previously identified or been obvious for many months. But the collection of mistakes remains shocking even when it is not surprising, and by spelling them out, the panel hopes to chart a course for change.


The organization declined to comment on the report before its member governments had reviewed it.


Details in the 34-page report are thin, but it says that China had genome sequencing evidence that a novel virus was circulating in Wuhan in December 2019. Health authorities there could have moved more quickly and decisively to contain the outbreak, the report says, yet country after country  repeated many of the same mistakes.








@ Jackie San


TMJ Dihina Penuntut Universiti Tempatan


Seorang penuntut universiti awam di Ibu Negara, didakwa Mahkamah Seksyen hari ini di atas tuduhan memuat naik status yang menghina Tunku Mahkota Johor, Tunku Ismail Ibrahim, di akaun Facebooknya, Februari 2021 yang lalu.

Ahmad Muazz Ishak, 22 (tertuduh), bagaimanapun mengaku tidak bersalah selepas pertuduhan dibicarakan di hadapan Hakim Ahmad Fuad Othman.

Tertuduh telah dituduh memuat naik status di akaun Facebook yang didaftarkan atas nama MuazzIshak yang tertera perkataan menghinan Tunku Ismail (TMJ).

Perbuatan itu didakwa dilakukannya di premis makanan segera di Jalan Pontian-Skudai, di sini, 11.45 pagi pada 05 Februari 2021.

Beliau didakwa mengikut Seksyen 233 (1)(A) Akta Komunikasi dan Multimedia 1988, yang membawa hukuman denda maksimum RM 50,000 atau penjara maksimum setahun atau kedua-duanya sekali, dan hendaklah juga didenda selanjutnya RM 1,000 bagi setiap hari kesalahan itu diteruskan selepas sabitan kes.

Kes dikendalikan oleh Timbalan Pendakwa Raya, Muhammad Qayyum Ramlan manakala tertuduh diwakili Muhammad Valantino Ifni Ho Ridzuan.

Terdahulu, Timbalan Pendakwa Raya menawarkan jaminan RM 10,000 dengan tertuduh perlu melaporkan diri dua (2) minggu sekali di balai polis berhampiran sehingga kes ini selesai.

Peguam tertuduh kemudian memohon jaminan diturunkan kepada RM 2,500 dengan alasan anak guamnya masih menuntut di tahun kedua jurusan Sains Sosial di Kuala Lumpur dan tiada pendapatan tetap.

Hakim kemudian memerintah tertuduh dijamin RM 3,000 dengan seorang penjamin dengan dia perlu melaporkan diri di Balai Polis Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, setiap dua (2) minggu sekali.

Sebutan Semula Kes Berkenaan Ditetapkan Pada 25 Mei 2021 depan.

@ Jackie San


LGBT Culture In Philippines


The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) people in the Philippines have a distinctive culture in society and also have limited legal rights. Gays and lesbians are generally tolerated (if not accepted) in Filipino society. Despite recent events that have promoted the rights, general acceptance, and empowerment of the Filipino LGBT community, discrimination remains. Homosexuals in the Philippines are known as "bakla", though there exist other terms to describe them. Similarly, Filipino lesbians are generally known as Alfa.


According to the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey, 11 percent of sexuality active Filipinos between the ages of 15 - 24 have had sex with someone of the same sex. According to Filipino poet and critic Lilia Quindoza Santiago, Filipino culture may have a more flexible concept of gender; kasarian (Tagalog for "gender") is defined in less binary terms than the English word; kasarian means "kind, species, or genus". 


WHY LGBT Popular In The Philippines ?

Even though causes for LGBTQs seem to have come to light only recently  perhaps amplified by social media and pop culture - members of the community have always been active contributors to the Philippine economy and its advancement. In the public consciousness, perhaps LGBTQs are more associated with the arts, like fashion and theater.


Father, have mercy on our nation and the children who are growing up in it. We ask that Your truth would be stronger than the lies of this word.

One of the early gay activities talking points was that 1 in 10 people were gay, even though the activists knew this was not true. That's why it was significant when, in 2011, demographer Gary Gates, himself gay, "released a review of population-based surveys on the topic, estimating that 3.5% of adults in the United States identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, with bisexuals making up a slight majority of that figure."

Other surveys came to similar conclusions, and even as recently as 2017, a Gallup poll put the total percentage of Americans who identify as LGBT at 4.5%. The newest Gallup poll, however, puts that number at 5.6%.

Young Adults Are More Likely To Identify As LGBT Than Are Older Generations

More strikingly, the poll indicates that 1 out of every 6 generation Z adults (meaning over 16% of those aged 18-23) identifies as LGBT. How can this be?


More than half of LGBT adults (54.6%) identify as bisexual. About a quarter (24.5%) say they are gay, with 11.7% identifying as lesbian and 11.3% as transgender. An additional 3.3% volunteer another non-heterosexual preference or term to describe their sexual orientation, such as queer or same-gender-loving. 

Rebasing these percentages to represent their share of the U.S. adult population finds 3.1% of Americans identifying as bisexual, 1.4% as gay, 0.7% as lesbian and 0.6% as transgender.

So, looking at this evidence, it would appear that, outside of 18-23 year-olds, there is no major change in the overall population that identifies as LGBT. Why, then, such a dramatic shift among these young adults?

There are two (2) likely explanations.

One is that, in the past, a large percentage of those who felt that they were LGBT hid their identities. 

Now, they feel freer to be out and proud.

The second possibility is that they are being influenced by the society around them, and so they perceive themselves to be gay or lesbian or bisexual or transgender at a much higher rate. This would suggest that LGBT identity is not simply inborn and innate. It can simply be a matter of perception.


Which Explanation Is Correct ?


Is Growing Acceptance Leading To More Widespread LGBT Behavior ?


It is certainly possible that more young people are feeling free to self-identify as LGBT. But it is hard to explain why there is such a dramatic spike in a private, anonymous poll.


Not only so, but in different communities in America and around the world where there has been tremendous acceptance of LGBT identity, the percentages of those who have identified as such over the years has remained fairly steady.


That's why this explanation, namely, that society is more open, does not seem adequate in explaining the significant jump in LGBT identification among 18 to 23-year-olds.


Instead, this spike should be seen as the result of the constant, pro-LGBT bombardment of children, beginning with the school system literally brainwashing children from their earlier days regarding LGBT identity. Put another way, do you really think that kids who were exposed to drag queens when they were toddlers might not be more inclined to wonder if they themselves might want to be drag queens too?







@ Jackie San




Najib Asks What Happend To The RM 3 Billion Set For Vaccines ?


Najib Razak has questioned the need for additional funds to procure vaccines following the passing of a new emergency ordinance that allows the government to tap into the national trust fund for such a purpose.


" I have to issue if the act was amended for vaccines, but I have my doubts over what has happened to the RM 3 Billion set aside in the federal budget," the former prime minister said in a Facebook post, referring to the sum allocated for the procurement of vaccines.


Najib said Purtajaya had previously said RM 2 Billion from the allocation would be sufficient to vaccinate 83% of Malaysians and that the other RM 1 Billion would be used to store and distribute the vaccines.


However, after the emergency was proclaimed, the RM 3 Billion allocation for the vaccines was increased to RM 5 Billion on grounds that the government wanted to speed up its target of vaccinating 80% of its 32 million population by this December instead of February 2022.


Najib went on to ask why an additional RM 2 Billion was needed to speed up the vaccination exercise by a mere two (2) months.


" And what has happened to the initial allocation of RM 3 Billion for the vaccines and funds from the sale of the national assets and cash reserves," he said, questioning the basis for the national trust fund to be raided now.


Najib said no withdrawals were made from the national trust fund during his tenure as the prime minister, adding that during his time the money in the fund increased to RM 16 billion from RM 4 billion.


Earlier today, the government passed a new emergency ordinance amending the National Trust Fund 1988 Act to allow it to be used for the procurement of vaccines and related expenditure.


Set up in 1988 and managed by Bank Negara Malaysia, the fund reportedly had RM 16.9 Billion in assets as at the end of 2017, with Petronas as its most notable contributor.


Today's newly-gazetted Emergency (National Trust Fund) (Amendment) Ordinance 2021 adds a new subsection to Section 6 of the National Trust Fund Act, which sates that the fund can be used for the "Procurement of vaccines and nay expenditure incurred in relation to the vaccines for an epidemic of any infectious disease as specified under he Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988 (Act 342)."


The Ordinance Comes Into Effect Immediately.









@ Jackie San






" VIRAL - Meriahnya Perjalanan Express Air Dari Bandar Limbang Menuju Ke...



Why Married Man Bisexual ?


The main reason is that so men already identify as bisexual. It's real because they say it is real. Marie-Jones Duff is a Los Angeles based freelance multimedia journalist and frequent traveler with a fondness fr all things bizarre and nerdy. Look for posts that focus on everything from men's fashion to science.




Questioning your sexuality and not entirely sure if you're straight? If you're a man who currently identifies as heterosexual but have found yourself wondering 'Am I bisexual?' you are not alone. But questioning your sexuality can be confusing and difficult time to navigate; largely because there is still a lot of misunderstanding stigma around bisexuality in men. There are many common but harmful myths about bisexuality, including that bisexuals are greedy, promiscuous, more likely to cheat on a partner, confused, or just going through a phase.


Bisexual erasure (where people believe bisexual men don't exist, and that any man who claims to be bi is actually gay and lying about their sexuality) also contributes to the taboo surrounding bisexuality in men, as does biphobia.


So if you're a man think you may be bisexual or you want to explore your sexuality a little more, we look at whet it means to be a bisexual man, how to work out where you sit on the sexuality scale, and what to do if you're keen to experiment.




Being with a bisexual husband can be hard, especially if you entered into the relationship with different expectations. Although learning that your husband is bisexual can shake the foundation of your marriage, it doesn't mean that your marriage is ending. On the contrary, many couples have found that bisexuality has opened the door for a more satisfying, trusting and honest relationship.


a. Accept Your Husband For Who He Is

Your husband has the same qualities that you fell in love with, and his bisexuality is another quality that you may have recently learned about. It also defines who he is. As your partner, he needs your love and support, and your relationship will remain strong if you can accepts him for who he is.


 b. Learn About Bisexuality

Knowing more about bisexuality will help you understand your partner. There is no single model for bisexuality, since each individual is different in their emotions and feelings. A bisexual person is sexually attracted to two genders. This individual likely also loves individuals first, often with less attention to specific gender. There are a lot of myths about bisexuality, which can be harmful to your relationship if you don't learn how these myths are just that-myths. Your relationship will strengthen if you understand the true nature of your partner's feelings. Some of these myths are:

i #. Myth: A person is either gay or straight, not both.

Human are complex and can have very different sexual orientations, including heterosexual (attracted to the opposite gender), homosexual (Attracted to the same gender), bisexual (attracted to two or more genders), asexual (not attracted to any gender), pansexual (not limited in sexual choice), or skoliosexual (attraction to non-binary identified individuals).

ii# Myth: Bisexual Can't Be Faithful

People can choose to be monogamous. People's sexual orientation does not determine their ability or desire to be in a monogamous, faithful relationship. The couple decides what it means to be monogamous.

iii. Myth: Bisexuals Have Moe Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

The rate of STDs does not correlate to someone's sexual orientation. Rather, it has to do with the individual's care in protecting themselves from STDs.


c. Give Your Relationship A Fresh Start

Recognize that your relationship has entered into a new phase. If you want the marriage to succeed and continue, you need to be willing to make changes. Your husband is still the same person that you married, but now you know even more about his desires and feelings. Understand that you may need to start fresh, with new boundaries and new expectations about what marriage means for both of you.


d. Talk With Your Husband About What He Wants

Your husband may have been struggling with his bisexuality for a long time. If he is just now telling you, he may have been trying to suppress his true feelings. He knows that you two trust and respect each other. He has taken a big step in being honest with you. Now you can take a big step by talking to him about what he wants. What does he want your marriage to be like? Does he want to have other partners? Does he want to remain monogamous?




a. Know That Communicating About Sexuality Can Be Difficult

Both of you may find it difficult to have a conversation about sexuality. For your husband, this might be the first time he's talked about his bisexuality. He may have been anxious and worried about you finding out, about keeping his feelings a secret, or about what other people will think. As for you, you may undergo worries and anxieties of your own, including feelings or inadequacy, concern about your relationship, or concern for how your family might react.


i. Being patient and understanding with each other is the best starting place for a conversation. Know that you love each other and want each other to be happy.


b. Be Open With Each Other

For your relationship to work, you need to communicate honestly with each other. Set aside time every day or every week when the two of you can talk without being interrupted. Talk about your concerns in an open yet supportive way.

i. This might include asking if and when your husband is making connections with other partners. Being bisexual doesn't mean that your husband will automatically cheat on you. But if he is going to be with other partners, you two should be open about that. Lies and deception are not a good foundation for any marriage.

c. Talk About Where You Stand On Monogamy

When one partner is bisexual, the other partner may worry that the husband will be unfaithful. If your husband wants to be non-monogamous, and you agree to it, then support him in that.

i. Many bisexual partners are in long-term monogamous relationships. Determine what you want for your relationship.

d. Set Boundaries

Determine what you want in your relationship. This may involve setting some ground rules about other partners, or sexual activity that you're both willing to participate in. Are you okay with your husband being with one other partner, or are multiple partners okay? How much do you want to be involved ?


e. Determine What You Both Want To Share With Family And Friends

As you and your husband begin to understand life together in this new phase, you may choose to share some of this information with family and friends. If you have children, think about how you'll talk with them about bisexuality.


i. Remember that when you "come out" to your children, have an ongoing conversation about it so that your kids can ask questions and understand your feelings. Be patient and give them time to process the information.





a. Realize That You Don't Need To Make Everything About Sexuality

Your lives will still go on, with work pressures, commuting headaches, grocery shopping, and so on. Your everyday life will continue much as it had before your husband told you about his bisexuality.


b. Make Sure Other Areas Of Your Life Are Fun And Interesting

Married life is about more than just sexual intimacy Find hobbies and activities to do together. Travel together. Develop a fulfilling life together in many different ways.


c. Explore Your Own Sexual Desires

An open conversation about your partner's sexuality and sexual desires is a chance to open up about your own sexual desires. Your husband is still attracted to you and wants you to feel free to explore what excites you.


i. Many partners have experienced a sexual awakening when they find out their husbands are bisexual. Their relationships have grown stronger and more satisfying.





a. Visit An LGBT Center For Support

An LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) center is a place where you can get counseling and health information, as well as lists of LGBT-friendly businesses and community resources.


i. Find a local LGBT center by visiting the website for CenterLink: The Community of LGBT Centers.


b. See A Mental Health Professional

A professional who specializes in relationships and sexuality may be able to help you understand your relationship and your partner's feelings. You may be feeling anxiety or other emotions about your relationship, and it can help to have an outside perspective on what you're feeling.


i. If you feel your relationship is in trouble, you might think about seeking couples counseling. There are therapists who specialize in the LGBT community.


c. Talk With A Trusted Family Member Or Friend

You may feel that your sex life in your marriage is a private matter, but it can help to get someone else's perspective on things. Choose someone who will not be judgemental and who will be respectful and trustworthy.






@ Jackie San













The immune system is our body's "defense against infection," according to the CDC, and it also plays a key role after you're vaccinated. With so many questions about whether or not the vaccine is safe, the agency has revealed how exactly it works, and why you'll want one. Read here on to see what happens to our body when we get the COVID-19 vaccine, according to the CDC-and to ensure our health and the health of others, don't miss these.


1# The Goal Of The Vaccine Is To Spring Your Immune System Into Action

" To understand how COVID vaccine work, it helps to first look at how our bodies fight illness," says the CDC. " When germs, such as the virus that causes COVID-19, invade our bodies, they attack and multiply. This invasion, called on infection, is what causes illness. Our immune system uses several tools to fight infection. Blood contains red cells, which carry oxygen to tissues and organs, and white or immune cells, which fight infection." So keep reading this article to see how they fight infection.


2# Your Immune System Can Remember What It Learned When Fighting The Infection

" The first time a person is infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, it can take several days or weeks for their body to make and use all the germ-fighting tools needed to get over the infection. After the infection, the person's immune system remembers what is learned about how to protect the body against that disease," says the CDC. " The body keeps a few T-lymphocytes, called memory cells, that go into action quickly if the body encounters the same virus again. When the Familiar antigens are detected, B-lymphocytes produce antibodies to attack them. Experts are still learning how long these memory cells protect a person against the virus that causes COVID-19".


3# The White Blood Cells Fight Infection In Different Ways

" Different types of white blood cells fight infection in different ways," says the CDC:

a. " Macrophages are white blood cells that swallow up and digest germs and dead or dying cells. The macrophages leave behind parts of the invading germs called antigens. The body identifies antigens as dangerous and stimulates antibodies to attack them.


b. B-lymphocytes are defensive white blood cells. They produce antibodies that attack the pieces of the virus left behind by the macophages.


c. T-lymphocytes are another type of defensive white blood cell. They attack cells in the body that have already been infected." These come into play later - keep reading. ya!


4# So How Do The COVID-19 Vaccines Work ?

" COVID-19 vaccines help our bodies develop immunity to the virus that causes COVID-19 without us having to get the illness. Different types of vaccines work in different ways to offer protection, but with all types of vaccines, the body is left with a supply of 'memory' T-lymphocytes as well as B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that virus in the future."


5# Did Vaccination May Have Side Effects To Us ? 

" For your info, sometimes after vaccination, the process of building immunity can cause symptoms, such as fever. These symptoms are normal and are a sign that the body is building immunity," says the CDC. Dr. Anthony Fauci, the chief medical advisor to the President and the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, felt a pain in his arm. Others have had chills or fatigue. One study says women feel stronger side effects then men. 


6# It Takes At Least Two Weeks For Your Vaccine To Work

" It typically takes a few weeks for the body to produce T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes after vaccination," says the CDC. "Therefore, it is possible that a person could be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 just before or just after vaccination and then get sick because the vaccine did not have enough time to provide protection."

7# How Does The Different Types Of Vaccines Work ?

There are three (3) main types of vaccines now available or being tested, says the CDC:


a. "mRNA vaccines"

-like those from Moderna and Pfizer -"contain material from the virus that causes COVID-19 that gives our cells instructions for how to make a harmless protein that is unique to the virus. After our cells make copies of the protein, they destroy the genetic material from the vaccine. Our bodies recognize that the protein should not be there and build T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight the virus that causes COVID-19 if we are infected in the future.


b. Protein subunit vaccines include harmless pieces (proteins) of the virus that cause COVID-19 instead of the entire germ. Once vaccinated, our immune system recognizes that the proteins don't belong in the body and begins making T-lymphocytes and antibodies. If we are ever infected in the future, memory cells will recognize and fight the virus.


c. Vector Vaccines" 

- like the kind from Johnson&Johnson - "contain a weakened version of a live virus - a different virus than the one that causes COVID-19 - that has genetic material from the virus that causes COVID-19 inserted in it (this is called a viral vector). Once the viral vector is inside our cells, the genetic material gives cells instructions to make a protein that is unique to the virus that causes COVID-19. Using these instructions, our cells make copies of the protein. This prompts our bodies to built T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that virus if we are infected in the future."


8# Why COVID-19 Vaccines Require More Than One Shot Vaccine ?

" All but one of the COVID-19 vaccines that are currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the United States use two shots," says the CDC. " The first short starts building protection. A second shot a few weeks later is needed to get the most protection the vaccine has to offer." So get vaccinated when it becomes available to you, and protect your life and the lives of others, don't visit any of these 35 Places You're Most Likely To Catch COVID-19.








@ Jackie San 







BIG ISSUES IN PHILIPPINES - Discrimination Against Gay & Bisexual


Schools should be safe places for everyone. 

But in the Philippines Country, students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) too often find that their schooling experience is marred by bullying, discrimination, lack of access to LGBT-related information, and in some cases, physical or sexual assault. These abuses can cause deep and lasting harm and curtail student's' right to education, protected under Philippine and international law.


In recent years, lawmakers and school administrators in the Philippines have recognized that bullying of LGBT youth is a serious problem, and designed interventions to address it. In 2012, the Department of Education (DepEd), which oversees primary and secondary schools, enacted a Child Protection Policy  designed to address bullying and discrimination in schools, including on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. The following year, Congress passed the Anti-Bullying Law of 2013, with implementing rules and regulations that enumerate sexual orientation and gender identity as prohibited grounds for bullying and harassment. The adoption of these policies sends a strong signal that bullying and discrimination are unacceptable and should not be tolerated in educational institutions.


But these policies, while strong on paper, have not been adequately enforced. In the absence of effective implementation and monitoring, many LGBT youth continue to experience bullying and harassment in school. The adverse treatment they experience from peers and teachers is compounded by discriminatory policies that stigmatize and disadvantage LGBT students and by the lack of information and resources about LGBT issues available in schools.


This report is based on interviews and group discussions conducted in 10 cities on the major Philippine island of Luzon and the Visayas with 76 secondary school students or recent graduates who identified as LGBT or questioning, 22 students or recent graduates who did not identify as LGBT or questioning, and 46 parents, teachers, counselors, administrators, service providers, and experts on education. It examines three broad areas in which LGBT students encounter problems-bullying and harassment, discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, and a lack of information and resources-and recommends steps that lawmakers, DepEd, and school administrators should take to uphold LGBT students' right to a safe and affirming educational environment.


The incidents described in this report illustrate the vital importance of expanding and enforcing protections for LGBT youth in schools. Despite prohibitions on bullying, for example, students across the Philippines described patterns of bullying and mistreatment that went unchecked by school staff. Carlos M., a 19-year-old gay student from Olongapo City, said: "When I was in high school, they'd push me, punch me. When I'd get out of school, they'd follow me [and] push me, call me 'gay', 'faggot,' things like that." While verbal bullying appeared to be the most prevalent problem that LGBT students faced, physical bullying and sexualized harassment were also worryingly common-and while students were most often the culprits, teachers ignored or participated in bullying as well. The effects of this bullying were devastating to the youth who were targeted. Benji A., a 20-year-old gay man in Manila who was bullied throughout his education, said, " I was depressed, I was bullied, I didn't know my sexuality, I felt unloved, and I felt alone all the time. And I had friends, but I still felt so lonely. I was listing ways to die."


The mistreatment that students faced in schools was exacerbated b discriminatory policies and practices that excluded them from fully participating in the school environment. Schools impose rigid gender norms on students in a variety of ways-for example, through gendered uniforms or dress codes, restrictions on hair length, gendered restrooms, classes  and activities that differ for boys and girls, and close scrutiny of same-sex friendships and relationships. For example, Mariosal D., a 21-year-old transgender woman, said:


" When I was in high school, thee was a teacher who always went around and if you had long hair, she would call you up to the front of the class and cut your hair in front of the students. That happened to me many times. It made me feel terrible: I cried because I saw my classmate watching me getting my hair cut. "


These policies are particularly difficult for transgender students, who are typically treated as their sex assigned at birth rather than their gender identity. But they can also be challenging for students who are gender non-conforming, and feel most comfortable expressing themselves or participating in activities that the school considers inappropriate for their sex.


Efforts to address discrimination against LGBT people have met with resistance, including by religious leaders. The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) for example has condemned violence and discrimination against LGBT people, but in practice, the Roman Catholic Church has resisted laws and policies that would protect LGBT rights. The CBCP has sought to weaken anti-discrimination legislation pending before Congress, for example, and has opposed implementation of comprehensive sexuality education in schools. Representatives of the Church warn that recognizing LGBT rights will open the door to same-sex marriage, and oppose legislation that might promote divorce, euthanasia, abortion, total population control, and homosexual marriage, which they group under the acronym "DEATH." In a country that is more than 80% Catholic, opposition from the Church influences how LGBT issues are addressed in families and schools, with many parents and teachers telling students that being LGBT is immoral or wrong.


One way that schools can address bullying and discrimination and ameliorate their effects is by providing educational resources to students, teachers, and staff to familiarize them with LGBT people and issues. Unfortunately, positive information and resources regarding sexual orientation and gender identity are exceedingly rare in secondary schools in the Philippines. When students do learn about LGBT people and issues in schools, the messages are typically negative, rejecting same-sex relationships and transgender identities as immoral or unnatural. Juan N., a22-year-old transgender man who had attended high school in Manila, said, "There would be a lecture where they'd somehow pass by the topic of homosexuality and show you, try to illustrate that in the Bible, in Christian theology, homosexuality is a sin, and if you want to be a good Christian you shouldn't engage in those activities. " Virtually all the students interviewed by Human Rights Watch said the limited sexuality education they received did not include information that was relevant to them as LGBT youth, and few reported having access to supportive guidance counselors or school personnel.

When students face these issues - whether in isolation or together - the school can become a difficult or hostile environment. In addition to physical and psychological injury, students described how bullying, discrimination, and exclusion caused them to lose concentration, skip class, or seek to transfer schools - all impairing their right to education. For the right to education to have meaning for all students -  including LGBT students-teachers, administrators, and lawmakers need to work together with LGBT advocates to ensure that schools become safer and more inclusive places for LGBT children to learn. 





 @ Jackie San



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