Thursday, 26 July 2018

Genetic Engineering - Profit Tools Better Life

Hasil carian imej untuk genetic engineering



1 Genetic engineering
is a new technology field. Today's technology is used primarily in everyday life. For example agriculture, medicine, nutrition, education and giving a lucrative income to business people.

2 Biotechnology
 is well known for the technique that uses the living organisms or materials of this organism to create or alter the product for practical purposes. Biotechnology can be used for all classes of organisms - from viruses and bacteria to plants and animals - and it has become a major feature of modern medicine, agriculture and industry today. Today, modern agriculture biotechnology includes the tools used by scientists to understand and manipulate genetic organisms for use in the production or processing of agricultural products.

3 Actually, biotechnology technology has been applied for a long time. For example, for brewing and fermentation. Only in the past we did not recognize it as a biotechnology technology. In addition, micro-organisms have been used for decades as living plants to produce life-saving antibiotics including penicillin, from fungal Penicillium, and streptomycin from bacterial Streptomyces. This is another example of a newer app but it is robust. Modern detergents rely on enzymes produced through biotechnology, the production of hard cheese mainly depends on the rennet produced by biotechnology yeast and human insulin for diabetics now produced using biotechnology.

4 Why Biotechnology Fields are Important

Biotechnology is used to address problems in all fields of agricultural production and processing. This includes plant breeding to raise and stabilize yield; to enhance endurance against pests, diseases and abiotic pressures such as drought and cold; and to improve food nutrition. Biotechnology is used to develop low-cost planting materials for crops such as cassava, lime, coconut, banana and pineapple and create new tools for the diagnosis and treatment of plant and animal diseases as well as the measurement and conservation of genetic resources.

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Biotechnology is used to accelerate breeding programs for plants, livestock and fish and to extend various features that can be addressed. Food and feed practices are being changed by biotechnology to improve animal nutrition and reduce environmental waste.

Biotechnology is used in disease diagnosis and to produce vaccines against animal diseases. In addition, this field is particularly beneficial to agriculture, especially reducing costs, the number of employees and the use of chemicals in agriculture can be reduced. The best result is that it maintains green environment practices.

Biotechnology is more than genetic engineering. In fact, some of the most controversial aspects of potential biotechnology are the most potent and most useful in helping the lower income group. For example, genomics revolutionize our understanding of how genes, cells, organisms and ecosystem functions and open new spaces for farming and assisted genetic resources management. At the same time, genetic engineering is a very powerful tool whose roles are carefully assessed. It is important to understand how biotechnology - especially genetic engineering - complement and extend other approaches if appropriate decisions are made regarding its use.

This writing provides a brief overview of the use and use of current biotechnology in plants, livestock, fisheries and forestry with a view to understanding the technology itself and how they complement and extend the approach of this field to other areas. It should be emphasized that biotechnology tools are just like: tools, not ending themselves. As with any tool, they must be evaluated in the context in which they are used.

5 Biotechnology definitions are:

"Any application of technology using biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to create or modify products for special use" (Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity, 1992). This definition includes medical and industrial applications as well as many common tools and techniques used in agriculture and food production.

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety defines "modern biotechnology" with narrower use of:
In vitro nucleic acid techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles, or

Fusion cells outside the taxonomic family, which cope with reproductive barriers or natural physiological recombination rather than techniques used in traditional breeding and selection.
-        Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity, 2000

"Biotechnology is broadly like the CBD and narrowly as" various different molecular technologies such as gene manipulation and genetic transfers, DNA cloning and cloning of plants and animals "(FAO, 2001a).
- Glossary of FAO Biotechnology

6 DNA recombinant technique
also known as genetic engineering or genetic genetic modification (more familiar but incorrect), refers to the genetic modification of the organism by means of transgenesis, in which the DNA of an organism or transgene is transferred to another without sexual reproduction. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are modified by the application of transgenesis or recombinant DNA technology, where transgene is inserted into the host genome or the genes within the host modified to alter the stage of expression. The terms "GMO", "transgenic organisms" and "genetic engineering organisms (GEOs)" are often used interchangeably even though they are not technically the same. For the purposes of this report, they are used as synonyms.

7Understand, Characterizing & Managing Genetic Resources
Farmers and pastoralists have manipulated the genetic make-up of plants and animals since agriculture began more than 10 000 years ago.

Farmers managed the process of domestication over millennia, through many cycles of selection of the best adapted individuals. This exploitation of the natural variation in biological organisms has given us the crops, plantation trees, farm animals and farmed fish of today, which often differ radically from their early ancestors.

The aim of modern breeders is…
the same as that of early farmers - to produce superior crops or animals. Conventional breeding, relying on the application of classic genetic principles based on the phenotype or physical characteristics of the organism concerned, has been very successful in introducing desirable traits into crop cultivars or livestock breeds from domesticated or wild relatives or mutants. In a conventional cross, whereby each parent donates half the genetic make-up of the progeny, undesirable traits may be passed on along with the desirable ones, and these undesirable traits may then have to be eliminated through successive generations of breeding. With each generation, the progeny must be tested for its growth characteristics as well as its nutritional and processing traits. Many generations may be required before the desired combination of traits is found, and time lags may be very long, especially for perennial crops such as trees and some of livestock species. Such phenotype-based selection is thus a slow, demanding process and is expensive in terms of both time and money. 

That mean “Biotechnology”- make the application of conventional breeding methods more efficient.

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8Reproduced mutation breeding

Mutation reproduction-assisted by reproduction

Spontaneous mutations are the "natural" motor of evolution, and the source to which breeders tapped to plant crops and "make" better varieties.
-         No mutation, no rice, or corn or other plants.

Beginning in the 1970s,
-the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the FAO sponsored research on mutation inductions to improve the genetic improvement of food and industrial crops to breed new varieties that improved. Induced mutations are produced by treating plant parts with chemical or physical mutagen and then choosing appropriate changes - in effect, to mimic spontaneous mutations and artificially extend genetic diversity. Absolute mutation induced mutations generally do not matter regardless of whether the mutant line is used directly or as a source of new variations in cross-capture program.

The mutations raised to aid in breeding have resulted in the introduction of many types of crops such as rice, wheat, barley, apples, citrus, sugarcane and bananas (FAO / IAEA Variety Database Variants listed more than 2 300 types officially issued1). The application of induced mutation to plant breeding has been translated into a remarkable economic impact on agricultural and food production now being valued in billions of US dollars and millions of hectares of land planted. Nowadays, mutation techniques have undergone a revival, extending its use directly in breeding into novel applications such as reverse genetic and genetic invention.

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