3 Basic Photography Terms
Photography is the art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (example., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.
Typically, a lens used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
Actually it doesn't matter if you use a Digital Compact Camera, Smart Phone or a Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera. The photography tips and tutorials on my blog can be useful in learning photography for beginners through advanced photographers. They will help you understand basic photography principles in easy to understand language.
Start with the Basics of Photography 1,2, and 3 listed below.
# 1 BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 1 (THE CAMERA)
Simple explanation of how a camera works and the main parts of a camera. Knowing the functions of the camera and what is happening when you press the shutter will help you make better decisions when taking pictures.
# 2 BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 2 (CAMERA EXPOSURE & SETTINGS)
Learn how the camera lens aperture, the camera shutter, and the ISO setting work together to help you get properly exposed pictures. Learning about camera exposure setting is one of the most important basics of photography.
# 3 BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 3 (PHOTOGRAPHY & NATURAL LIGHT)
Depending of the type of natural light outdoors when you are taking pictures, your images may have a cool tone or maybe a warm tone. Even the time of day you take pictures will have an effect on the overall look of your images.
Let's dive into more depth...
Learning how exposure works will help you to take control of your camera and take better photos. Aperture, Shutter Speed, ISO are the elements that combine to create an exposure.
As you'll soon learn, these elements have an effect on more than just the exposure. They also cause alterations in depth of field, motion blur, and digital noise.
Once you understand how each one works, you can start diving into manual mode. This is where you take control back from your camera.
The exposure triangle is a great way to remember the three settings. When combined, they control the amount of light captured from any given scene.
This will help you to understand that changing one setting will necessitate a change in the others. That is if you are photographing the same scene with the same exact lighting conditions.
It's similar to the pupil of your eye: the wider the aperture, the more light is allowed in and vice versa. Simple? Not quite.
As the aperture widens, the f/number gets lower and more light is allowed into the camera. This is great for low light but be aware that it's going to make the depth of field very shallow - not ideal when taking landscapes.
So there's a bit of give and take. The aperture is the preferred setting to set first, as it directly influences how much of your scene is in focus. But, if you are looking to create motion blur, then it is second to the shutter speed.
Exposure will be much easier if you can memorize the f/stop scale.
The scale is as follows: f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16 and f/22.
c). SHUTTER SPEED
Ordinarily, you only want a very small fraction of a second (for example 1/250) to prevent motion blur. However, different shutter speeds complement different situations.
Anything from really fast (1/4000) for sports photography to really slow (30 seconds) for night photography. It all depends on what you're shooting and how much light you have available to you.
Knowing how your shutter speed works is a key element in the basics of photography.
As you turn the ISO number up, you increase the exposure. But, at the same time, the image quality decreases. There will be more digital noise or "gain".
So you have to decide upon your priorities in terms of exposure vs grain.
For example, I would reduce the image quality if it meant that I could prevent motion blur in my photo. There's no possible way to fix that in post-production (yet, at least).
e). EXPOSURE SUMMARY
Once you've understood aperture, shutter speed and ISO, you need to learn how each of these elements of exposure work together.
For all those basics of photography, exposure is the most important.
If you don't have this down, composition and framing become a moot point in beginner photography.
In this post, you will learn about the 'stop' based system for measuring exposure. But, more importantly, how to prioritize the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO for the best photo.
Every Time !!!
UNDERSTANDING YOUR CAMERA
a). METERING MODES
Digital photography for beginners can be confusing. Exposure isn't as simple as learning about aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. You also have to learn about how your camera looks at light.
METERING MODES are there to tell your camera how you want it to look at a scene.
Understanding this basic photography point may just be the key to understanding why your photos are coming out underexposed or overexposed.
The histogram shows you a mathematical review of an exposure after the photo has been taken. It essentially tells you how evenly exposed a photo is.
LCD screens aren't very good at showing you this information through their display of the image. This is because they are affected by the ambient lighting conditions you're in and the brightness of the screen itself.
That's why the histogram is such a powerful tool to utilize in beginning photography correctly.
c). SHOOTING MODES
Full-Auto, Program, Aperture Priority, Shutter Speed Priority or Manual Mode. How do you work out which one you should be using?
There's also a lot of misconceptions about which mode to use under which conditions. On top of a lot of bias towards not using manual mode.
When you understand what exactly each mode does, the one that will be suitable for your situation becomes a lot clearer.
d). DEPTH OF FIELD
When you're shooting in low light, you invariably have to widen your aperture to allow enough light into the lens. But this has one rather a major side effect. A shallow depth of field.
This can be used very creatively (often to excess) but it's not the only possibility. There are many situations, such as landscapes, where you'll want to be using a narrower aperture so that the whole scene remains in focus.
When it comes to covering all of the basics photography, depth of field is very important.
e). WHITE BALANCE
White balance is something I wish I'd learned more about much sooner than I did. I look back on some photos now and wonder what I was thinking.
The white balance changes the color cast of the entire photo. It is responsible for the overall warmth. It can determine whether your photo appears blue or orange, cold or warm.
Auto white balance doesn't tend to do a particularly good job, particularly with tungsten light. The sooner you learn about this basic photography idea, the more accurate your photos will look.
f). FOCAL LENGTH
Have you ever wondered what the 'mm' on your lens actually means? Or why people use longer focal lengths for portraits?
g). CROP FACTOR
A lot of you may not realize but, unless you spend about RM 10,000.00 on your camera, you're more than likely to be shooting on a crop sensor.
This means that your sensor is much smaller than professional SLR cameras, essentially cropping your image. The crop factor has a range of effects on your photos.
It creates a narrower viewing angle and will influence your lens purchases in the future. For those beginner photographers, research what lenses will help your field of photography first.
h). POLARIZING FILTERS
Polarizing filters only allow light into the lens from a certain direction. This results in the removal of glare and reflections from non-metallic objects.
Water and glass are the most affected, as well as haze from the sky. Cutting out these reflections and anomalies will make for more naturally saturated colors.
Not only does this look great but it cannot be replicated in post-production, hence it's so important to understand.
ARTICLE RELATED TO CAMERA
@ Jackie San